Archive for the ‘Air shower’ category

Genetic Transformation and Laminar Air Flow

April 14th, 2014

Genetic transformation literally means change caused by genes, and involves the insertion of a gene (donor) into an organism (from recipient) in order to change the organism’s trait.

The process of transformation has certain common features:

  • The purified donor DNA is first transported across the cell membrane into the recipient “competent cells” (cells, that can take up DNA), and
  • The DNA then undergoes recombi­nation with the recipient DNA and is then expressed.

Genetic transformation is used in many areas of biotechnology.

  • In agriculture, genes coding for traits such as frost, pest, or spoilage resistance can be genetically transformed into plants.
  • In bioremediation, bacteria can be genetically transformed with genes enabling them to digest oil spills.
  • In medicine, diseases caused by defective genes are beginning to be treated by Gene Therapy; that is, by genetically transforming a sick person’s cells with healthy copies of the defective gene that causes the disease.

The main purpose of the Bacterial Transformation is to introduce a foreign plasmid into a bacterium and to use this bacterium to amplify the plasmid in order to make large quantities of this.

Bacteria can acquire new genetic information by three means:

  • Conjugation,
  • Transduction and
  • Transformation

During Conjugation, DNA is transferred directly from one organism to another, whereas in Transduction, the DNA is carried by Bacteriophages. And the Transformation includes insertion of naked DNA into bacterial cell with the help of different methods such as Electroporation and CaCl2 method etc.

But this Bacterial Transformation protocol should be done under aseptic environment so that no other bacterial genome can interfere with the genome of interest.

Maintenance of aseptic environment:

All culture vessels, media and instruments used in protocol must be sterilized. The importance is to keep the air surface and floor free of suspended particles and any other microorganisms. All operations are carried out in Laminar Air Flow, a sterile cabinet. Infection can be from

  • The air contains a large quantity of suspended microorganisms in the form of fungal and Bacterial spores.
  • The human body (a skin, breathe etc) carries several microorganisms.

Laminar Air Flow provides a work area with aseptic/sterile conditions. Laminar Air Flow has continuous displacement of air (it provides streamline flow of air) that passes through HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter that removes the particulates from the air.

Laminar Air Flow are equipped with a UV lamp that should be turned on about 10-20 minutes  before being used to sterilize the shell or cabinet or the surface of the Laminar Air Flow to avoid any kind of contaminations. Wipe down the surface with ethanol before and after each use.

Clean Room and Air Shower

April 7th, 2014

Clean rooms are designed to restrict the admission of all types of microbial and particulate contamination. A Clean Room is a room that has a controlled level of contamination usually specified by the number of micro particles per cubic meter at a specified size. Clean rooms are used for a wide variety of industrial, medical, pharmaceutical and research application.

Sometimes numerous contaminants and particles can be introduced into a clean room and for that reason clean rooms will feature decontaminating personnel/equipment such as Air Shower. Clean Rooms rely on the effectiveness of terminal high efficiency particulate air HEPA filter (provided by Air Shower) to provide particle free air to the controlled environment. An Air Shower is very often a self-contained unit that utilizes specialized, high efficiency air flow (HEPA filter) to effectively remove all types of contaminants.

Air Showers are booth or narrow enclosed passageways that have air nozzles fitted into the walls that blast air onto the workers. When the highest levels of particulate and microbial contaminant control are required an Air Shower will always be installed.

Whatever the application is, like the medical research to the sterile packaging facilities, a truly clean environment is one of the required conditions. An Air Shower ensures the cleanest possible environment possible for industries such as:

  • Pharmaceutical research and manufacturing applications.
  • Medical patients’ isolation units.
  • Biomedical and other research endeavors.
  •  Sterile packaging facilities.
  • Aviation and aerospace manufacturing applications and more.

Air Showers can greatly enhance Clean Room’s performance by removing surface contamination from clothing and Clean Room garments. Air Showers blow off and remove much of this contamination preventing it from entering the clean space.