Posts Tagged ‘Tissue Culture Microscope’

Tissue Culture Microscope

July 15th, 2014

A microscope consists of a compound light microscope with high power objectives facing upward is known as tissue culture microscope. This is also known as inverted tissue culture microscope because the objective faces upward.

This inverted design of objective piece is required because the microscope is used to view the bottom of a Petri dish or flask since the culture is growing on the bottom of the dish. The higher the power of objective, the closer the objective needs to be to the specimen.

These microscopes are very expensive but are easy to operate. They provide useful information about the morphology and state of the cell by visualizing the cell with the help of these microscopes so that early signs of cell stress may be easily identified and appropriate action can be taken to prevent loss of cultures.

Cell/tissue removed from an organism, will continue to grow if they are supplied with the appropriate nutrients and conditions. When this process is carried in laboratory or in vitro the process is known as tissue or cell culture.

Plant Tissue Culture

Plant Tissue Culture refers to the culture of plant tissue/cells and organs such as root, shoot tips and leaves in artificial nutrient media aseptically.Growth and morphogenesis of tissue/cells in vitro are largely governed by composition of culture media.

Culture media used for the in vitro cultivation of plant cells are composed of following components

  • Essential elements, or minerals, supplied as a complex mixture of salts;
  • An organic supplement supplying vitamins and amino acids
  • A source of fixed carbon; usually supplied as the sugar sucrose
  • A gelling agent
  • Growth regulators (Auxins, cytokinines, Gibberellins, Abscisic acid and Ethylene)

Plant Tissue Culture is of many types such as callus culture, cell-suspension culture, protoplast culture, organ culture, meristem culture, root culture, embryo culture, haploid culture, anther culture and ovary culture.

Some important Applications of Plant Tissue Culture

Clonal Propagation; Multiplication of genetically identical copies of a cultivar by asexual reproduction is called clonal propagation. A population derived from a single individual by asexual reproduction constitutes a clone. Clonal propagation through tissue culture is known as Micropropagation.

Production of Virus free plants; infection can be eliminated by micropropagation of unaffected parts of plants. The basic method of production of virus free plant is culture of apical meristems.

Artificial seeds; somatic embryos may develop in vitro through embryogenesis. These can be preserved through the preparation of artificial seeds.

Production of secondarymetabolites; chemical molecules such as alkaloids, resins, tannins, latex, these chemicals are known as secondary metabolites. Their function is mainly associated with the defense against of pests and pathogens. By utilizing tissue culture technique these chemicals are produced in large scale.

Animal Tissue Culture

Cells in animals exist in an organized tissue matrix which require for their controlled growth and differentiation. These cells from intact organisms may be isolated, maintained and grown in vitro in culture media aseptically containing suitable mixtures of nutrients and growth factors, this process is called Animal Tissue Culture.

Some major applications of Animal Tissue Culture

Model System; animal cell culture provides a good model system for studying

  • Basic cell biology and biochemistry
  • Effects of drugs on cells
  • Interactions between diseases causing agents and cells
  • Nutritional studies

Cancer Research; since both normal and cancer cell can be grown in culture so there differences can easily be studies

Virology; replication of virus in cell culture for the production of vaccines.

Toxicity testing; cultured cells are widely used alone or in conjuction with animal tests to study the effects of new drugs, cosmetics and chemicals on survival and growth of cell.

Applications areas of Tissue Culture Microscope

  • Cellular biology
  • Molecular biology
  • Biology classroom equipment
  • Microbiological study
  • Environmental research
  • Medical diagnostics
  • Medical research